Before them lay the gloomy and almost certain prospect of banishment from the land which remained to them [and] of the extirpation of the religion which was fast becoming the passion as well as the consolation of their lives. On the same day — October 24th — Chichester wrote to the King from Belfast, saying:—. The general character of the Rebellion may, perhaps, be gathered from the following extract from Clogy's Life of Bedell:—. In 1547, the Chiefs of Leix and Offaly were attacked. Quite apart from the significant time lapse involved, it has been pointed out that there is evidence of considerable economic and social interaction between the Protestant settlers and the Catholic native population in the intervening period. The expression, 'nits make lice,' was used by the soldiers to justify the murder of infants. It was his presence that revived memories of the past, and stirred up fears for the future. The 1641 rebellion was a Catholic uprising that broke out on October 23, 1641. XVII, No. This is a sentiment which we can all admire. The author returned to Ireland in 1847–49 to help with famine relief and recorded those experiences in the rather harrowing: Annals of the Famine in Ireland is Asenath Nicholson's sequel to Ireland's Welcome to the Stranger. 1641 Ulster massacres: Ulster, Ireland: 4,000–12,000 The Ulster Massacres were a series of massacres and resulting deaths amongst the ~4,000–12,000 Protestant settlers which took place in 1641 during the Irish Rebellion. The so-called 1641 rebellion actually lasted for almost ten years, spreading to other areas of Ireland when the native Irish of Ulster were joined in revolt by their Old English co-religionists. But he was not only left unmolested, but he was allowed to protect the refugees who flocked to him from all quarters. It was the Englishman that represented the dominion of the foreigner. Thus, throughout the reigns of Edward VI, Mary, Elizabeth, and James I was the 'wind sown.' By 1641, Ireland faced several problems besides the guys living next door. Bedell died in the hands of the rebels in February, 1642. In 1541, Henry VIII summoned a parliament in Ireland. 449, May 1905]. The Portadown massacre in late 1641 in which several hundred Protestants were killed. They ultimately reached Kilmore in safety, and took refuge with Bishop Bedell. Oliver Cromwell used it as his excuse to rape and pillage Ireland, but the 1641 ‘massacre’ of Protestants by Catholics during the Irish rebellion likely never happened. The Scotch settlers were not attacked. But there is nothing specially sacred in an English blade of grass. The coup failed and the rebellion developed into an ethnic conflict between Irish Catholics on one side, and English and Scottish Protestants on the other. His account of the journey provides invaluable eyewitness testimony to the trauma and tragedy that many emigrants had to face en route to their new lives in Canada and America. This gave the Irish breathing space to create the v This gave the Irish Catholics breathing space to create the. Atrocity and Massacre in the Early Modern World. No mercy whatever was shown to the natives, no act of treachery was considered dishonourable, no personal tortures and indignities were spared to the captives.' Those who perished [says Mr. Gardiner] were for the most part those who were driven naked through the cold November nights amongst a population which refused them a scanty covering, or a morsel of food in their hour of trial. It relates the circumstances under which the great exodus to the New World began, the trials and tribulations faced by these tough American pioneers and the enduring influence they came to exert on the politics, education and religion of the country. However, as the author demonstrates, despite some of the outrageous claims made in the depositions, the myth of 1641 became more important than the reality. The 1641 Rebellion. A burglar enters your house. Cromwell himself, in fact, took this view of the case. For a time, such was the success of the revolt that Protestant dominance in Ireland was in danger of being eradicated, not least when Owen Roe O’Neill led the Catholic rebels in Ulster to a famous victory at the battle of Benburb (County Tyrone) in 1646, the main Protestant army in Ireland having been annihilated. An illustration showing images from the 1641 rising by Catholic rebels of an alleged massacre of Protestants during the Irish rebellion known as the Depositions. For that reason, it conveys the reality of the calamity in a much more telling way. The slaughter of the inhabitants of Drogheda and Wexford are as indelibly imprinted on the psyche of Irish Catholics as the previous massacres in Ulster are on Protestants. By November 1641, armed parties of Ulstermen were rounding up British Protestant settlers and marching them to th… Nevertheless, he wrote:—. 'I am persuaded,' he wrote to the Parliament from Drogheda, 'that this is a righteous judgment of God upon those barbarous wretches who have imbrued their hands in so much innocent blood.' Finally, Mr. Lecky sums up the policy which had been pursued prior to the rebellion in the following words:—. The English came as conquerors. This Rebellion is often spoken of as if English and Irish stood on a footing of perfect equality with reference to it. Twelve thousand English were destroyed by the whole 'tumultuary [Irish] rabble' in Ulster. 1641 rebellion, memory and history, Northern Ireland, Portadown, Ulster loyalism The 1641 rebellion first began in Ulster. Some of the primary native Irish ‘beneficiaries’ of the Ulster Plantation, it is suggested, having got into economic difficulties, resorted to desperate measures to combat this situation. A 19th century poem, in the voice of a 1641 rebel, mentions Islandmagee and, implicitly, Portadown. Mr. Lecky reminds us, that even Sir Phelim O'Neil — the one blameworthy rebel leader — 'had the reputation much more of a weak and incapable than of a deliberately cruel man.' On the 30th of November, Ormonde wrote to the King, 'the rebels are in great numbers, for the most part merely armed with such weapons as would rather show them to be a tumultuary rabble, than an army.' I think, that, at this time of day it is absolutely impossible to say, with precise accuracy, how many of the 12,000 fell in battle, or were killed in defending their houses and property; how many perished by cold, want, and hunger, or were murdered in cold blood. The suppression of the native race in the wars against Shane O'Neil, Desmond, and Tyrone, was carried on with a ferocity which surpassed that of Alva in the Netherlands, and has seldom been exceeded in the pages of history. The drowning of Protestants during the 1641 rebellion. He found he could not destroy them, and he made peace with Sir Brian O'Neil. Bishop Bedell was, as I have said, the English Protestant Bishop of Kilmore. Out of the whole 2,000, 100 perished on the way, from cold and hunger, the rest reached Dublin safely, but miserably. Two more incidents of the Elizabethan wars may be mentioned:—. At first the guard did their duty successfully, protecting the settlers from the fury of starving and naked peasants, who hung on the flank of the refugees. The spirit in which the Commissioners — Mr. Jones, Dean of Kilmore, and several other Protestant clergymen — set to work may be gathered from the statement of the objects of the Commission: 'To keep up the memory of the outrages committed by the Irish to posterity.' When the last man had filed past, the English soldiers surrounded the fort, and the doomed clans were slaughtered to a man. There were festivities in his honour. Publication date 1920 Topics Ireland -- History Rebellion of 1641, Ulster (Ire.) A Catholic Archbishop fell into the hands of the English authorities, and before they sent him to the gallows they tortured him to extort a confession of treason by one of the most horrible torments human nature can endure — by roasting his feet with fire. They created plantations, huge estates that grew crops for food or money, and made the local Irish do all the hard work, a system called the Plantation Policy. A fierce struggle followed. Murders and outrages began when a war of extermination was waged against the Irish; 5. When the 1641 rebels began seizing the property of settlers a number of massacres by settlers took place, including Islandmagee where the Catholics had not joined any rebellion. Ireland memories of this time were of massacre, defeat, and mass dispossession. For years before the Rebellion broke out, English and Scottish lords had been taking over lands in Ireland to grow rich. By John Dorney. The policy of extermination and confiscation — the policy of 'stamping out the Irish,' as if, to use the language of Mr. Froude, they were of 'no more value than their own wolves' — was at once adopted, and rigorously enforced. ... Everything which had been done in Ireland since . [Phelim O'Neil] treated Lord Caulfield and his family with great care when he surprised the fort of Charlemont on the 23rd day of October, 1641; there Lord Caulfield was kept until the 14th of January, when he was sent, under an escort to Clongorth Castle. The Irish Rebellion of 1641 was a result of Protestant plantations taking over Irish lands. [From The Irish Ecclesiastical Record, 4th Series, Vol. Again they fought for their homes. A group of academics has been tasked to reinvestigate a centuries-old massacre of Protestants in Ireland. The cessation of hostilities [says Clarendon] was no sooner known in England, but the two Houses declared against it... persuading the people that the Rebels were brought to their last gasp, and reduced to so terrible a famine that, like cannibals, they did eat one another; and must have been destroyed immediately, and utterly rooted out, if, by Popish counsels at Court, the King had not been persuaded to consent to this cessation. The Irish — who were unarmed — marched between files of English soldiers into the rath.But none of them ever returned. It was but a moment's work to rush upon the helpless crowd, to strip both men and women to the skin, and to send them on in their misery. At last, as the mob swelled to larger dimensions, the guard was rushed, and the refugees plundered:—. The respected Ulster historian Dr A T Q Stewart once said that ’The 1641 rebellion is perhaps the most important episode in the history of Ulster since the plantation, yet it is one of the least discussed.’ The land that was a little before like a garden of Eden was speedily turned into a desolate wilderness. The massacre lasted for several days. This was notably the case in the County Cavan, where Philip O'Reilly led the insurgents. It took place in that part of the country which, thirty years before, had been the scene of wholesale confiscations; 3. Says Clogy:—. It had become clear beyond all doubt to the native population that the old scheme of rooting them out from the soil was the settled policy of the Government; that the land which remained to them was marked as a prey by hungry adventurers, by the refuse of the population of England and Scotland, by men who cared no more for their rights and happiness than they did for the rights and happiness of the worms which were severed by their own spades. It is the old story of the double dose of original sin which, it is supposed, was given to the Irish at the beginning. The Irish were not left in a position to make estimates; and the English writers cared not to reckon the number of 'wolves,' or 'worms' that were destroyed. Some of the Irish priests, and Jesuits, were especially conspicuous for these acts of Christian mercy, hiding terrified suppliants under the altar cloths, and striving to stop the bloodshed at the risk of their own lives. Within months of the outbreak of rebellion in October 1641, Protestant refugees began pouring into Dublin with tales of bloodshed and other cruelties. The 1641 rebellion remains a controversial event in Irish history. One side of the banner is a representation of the massacre of Protestants in the River Bann in Portadown during the Irish Rebellion of 1641. The breath was scarcely out of his body when everything was changed. Sir Charles Coote, St. Leger, Sir F. Hamilton, Sir William Parsons, Sir Arthur Loftus carried fire and sword throughout the country, butchering indiscriminately guilty and innocent, men, women, and children. However, while there is considerable justification in affording importance to such short term factors, long-standing grievances associated with the Ulster Plantation remain a primary factor too. As the English had sown, so had they reaped. . He continues:—. The rebellion had broken out in October 1641 and was marked by attacks by dispossessed native Irish on the English and Scottish Protestant settlers who had arrived in Ulster in the Ulster Plantationabout 30 years earlier. In 1573, Walter Devereux, Earl of Essex, was granted the whole of what is now called the County of Antrim. The warm clothes of the hated English [says Mr. Gardiner] would be a precious possession in the cold winter nights which were approaching. It is possible, indeed, that a people, in defending their own territory, may commit excesses; and for these excesses they must stand at the Bar of History. The outrages committed by the Irish were committed by a 'tumultuary rabble'; 6. In considering the whole case and, generally, in judging the sins of the conquerors and the conquered, it should never be forgotten that the one comes to attack, the other to defend; that the one comes to rob, the other to hold what is his own; that the one fights to enslave, and that the other rightly struggles to be free. 'Well would it have been both for England, and Ireland,' says Mr. Joyce, 'if a similar policy had been followed in the succeeding reigns.'. In later years, Protestant commentators could point to the 1641 rebellion as proof of Catholic barbarity and perfidy. Whatever cruelties are to be charged upon the Irish in the prosecution of their undertaking — and they are numerous and horrid — yet their first intention went no further than to strip the English and Protestants of their power and possessions, and, unless forced to it by opposition, not to shed any blood. The Irish, apparently, desired to have no quarrel with them. An American widow’s account of her travels in Ireland in 1844–45 on the eve of the Great Famine: Sailing from New York, she set out to determine the condition of the Irish poor and discover why so many were emigrating to her home country. Excesses one naturally expects from a 'tumultuary rabble;' one does not expect them from disciplined armies and civilized governments. There were not 100,000, there were not 50,000, there were not 30,000 — there were 20,000. The 1641 Depositions constitute the chief evidence for the sharply contested allegation that the 1641 rebellion began with a general massacre of Protestant settlers. Let me put a homely case. But, Mr. Lecky mentions the fact that 'numbers of Protestants were sheltered by the mother of Sir Phelim O'Neil;' and Mr. Walpole — an Englishman — in his history of Ireland, says:—. At first, there were beatings and robbing of local settlers who lived on land taken from the Irish Catholics by force of arms, then house burnings and expulsions and finally killings. What began as an event associated with the massacre of Irish Protestants was to end with the equally notable massacres wrought by the armies of Oliver Cromwell who landed in Ireland in 1649. The book is also available in Kindle. In the reign of Charles I, the 'whirlwind was reaped.' Therewere not 200,000 English in Ulster. But Bill Sykes must not come forward as the accusing angel. The outrages committed by the English were committed by disciplined armies, stimulated by authoritative commanders, and provoked or sanctioned by the English Government; 7. Irish sentiment was not wholly ignored, Irish views were more or less considered. Finally, all the Irish officers laboured to give the war a character of humanity; all the English officers laboured to give the war a character of inhumanity. The combatants, on both sides, were at length exhausted, and terms of peace were proposed. The 1641 rebellion and its legacy. The Rebellion of 1641--generally called a 'massacre'--was undoubtedly a struggle on the part of the exiled nobles and clergy and the evicted peasants to get possession of their estates and farms, which had been occupied … The Rebellion broke out after ninety years of untold wrongs and miseries inflicted on the native race; 2. Nevertheless, it is a curious fact, that, in this Commission there is no direction to inquire into the 'murders' committed by the Irish. That night we all lay in open fields. The sword was not found efficient. The question for the Irish was whether they should carry on the war to the bitter end, or, being worsted in the field, accept honourable terms of peace. The Rebels [says Clogy] offered us no violence — save in the night, when our men were weary with continual watching, they would steal away a good horse, and run off — but were very civil to us all the way, and many of them wept at our parting from them, that had lived so long and peaceably amongst them, as if we had been one people with them. An illustration showing images from the 1641 rising by Catholic rebels of an alleged massacre of Protestants during the Irish rebellion known as … The settlers were left to shift for themselves as the natives had been left to shift for themselves, the natives recovered their own. In reprisal the rebels massacred Protestants in Portadown and elsewhere. Henry died in 1547. 'Blood' was ultimately 'shed;' horrid crimes' were committed by the 'tumultuary rabble;' but not, in all probability, until the disciplined armies of England showed the example. Memory of 1641. The actual rebellion of 1641 and the mass death of Protestants is still discussed and debated to this day. Far different was the conduct of the great Irish leader, Owen Roe O'Neil. The Scots defended themselves bravely, but they were overpowered, and men, women, and children were mercilessly slaughtered. In July 1960, a new banner was unveiled for the lodge at a ceremony in Clifton Street Orange Hall, Belfast, by the then Grand Master of Ireland, Senator Sir George Clark. It is clear that at the outset there was no intention on the part of the rebels to commit murders. The slaughter of Irishmen was looked upon as literally the slaughter of wild beasts. -- History Publisher London Murray Collection robarts; toronto Digitizing sponsor MSN Contributor On the termination of the struggle Brian invited Essex to his castle. He attacked the O'Neils of Clandeboy. In accounting for this sudden outbreak of revolt, historians are divided about the importance of its long and short term causes. Mrs Nicholson’s recollections of her tour among the peasantry are still revealing and gripping today. The Portadown massacre took place in November 1641 at Portadown, County Armagh, during the Irish Rebellion of 1641. One statement, however, may be made:—, We can hardly [says Mr, Lecky] have a shorter or more graphic picture of the manner in which the war was conducted, than is furnished by one of the items of Sir William Cole's own catalogue of the services performed by his regiment in Ulster — 'starved and famished of the vulgar sort, whose goods were seized by this regiment, 7,000.'. . The warfare of extermination was carried on in the North as well as in the South. On September 11, 1649, the County Louth town of Drogheda was the scene of one of the worst massacres to take place on Irish soil, blackening the name of Oliver Cromwell in Ireland forever. The Irish chiefs were dispossessed, and English and Scotch adventurers poured in to take their place. 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